Large Scale Renewable Power Generation
Green Energy and Technology 2014, pp 193-231
Frequency Control and Inertial Response Schemes for the Future Power Networks
Future power systems face several challenges: (i) the high penetration level of renewable energy from highly variable generators connected over power converters, (ii) several technologies for energy storage with very different time constants, some of them using power converters as an interface to the grid, and (iii) a pan-European transmission network facilitating the integration of large-scale renewable energy sources and the balancing and transportation of electricity based on underwater multi-terminal high voltage direct current (MTDC) transmission. All of them have an element in common, high power converters that decouple the new energy sources from the pre-existent AC power systems. During a system frequency disturbance, the generation/demand power balance is lost, the system frequency will change at a rate initially determined by the total system inertia. However, future power systems will increase the installed power capacity (MVA) but the effective system inertial response will stay the same nowadays, because the new generation units based on power converters creates a decoupling effect of the real inertia and the AC grid. The result is deeper frequency excursions of system disturbances. A considerable reduction in the ability to overcome system frequency disturbances is expected, the inertia response may be decreased. The aim of this chapter is to present the fundamental aspects of system frequency control and inertial response schemes for the future power networks.
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Green Energy and Technology
Springer Science+Business Media Singapore